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Ali (A.S.)     - The Miracle of Muhammad (S.A.W.
Who is this Ali?
The genealogy of Ali (A.S.)
Abu Talib (A.S.) - The Obliger of Islam.
The Birth of Ali (A.S.)
Ali (A.S.) - Under the guidance of the Prophet (S.A.W.)
The personality of Ali (A.S.)

The fate of Ali (A.S.)'s followers.
Ali (A.S.) - As viewed by the historians
The proclamation of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)
The death of Khadija (S.A.)
The death of Abu Talib (A.S.)
The Hijrat
The Prophet (S.A.W.) in Madina
The marriage of Fatema (S.A.)
The battle of Badr
The battle of Ohad
The battle of Khandaq
The treaty of Hudaibia
The battle of Khaibar
The conquest of Mecca
The battle of Hunain
The despatch of Surah Baraat
Mubahela (Maledictory Conflict)
The expedition to Yemen
The last Hajj
Ghadeer -e-Khum
The Last days of the Prophet (S.A.W.)
The will of the Prophet (S.A.W.)
The death of the Prophet (S.A.W.)
The conspiracy of Saqifa
Abu Bakr becomes Caliph
The regime of A bu Bakr
The usurping of Fadaq
The death of Fatema (S.A.)
   

THE USURPING OF FADAK

 

When Madina was emptied by the expedition of Osama, there was nobody except the few companions of the Prophet (S.A.W) who were also now divided between the supporters and enemies of Abu Bakr and Ali (A.S.). Abu Bakr turned his attention towards the liquidation of the Prophet (S.A.W)’s family. He saw that with all his manipulations there were still some very important personalities and very close friends of the Prophet (S.A.W) who still regarded Ali (A.S.) as the real heir of the Prophet (S.A.W) and continued to visit him give their love and affection to him and take his guidance in every matter. This he felt could explode any day. Therefore he thought fit to liquidate Ali (A.S.) and his family financially and economically so that they may not be able to raise their heads against him, and as a first step towards this goal he ordered the confiscation of all the properties and income of Fatema (S.A.) which she had inherited from her father by inventing a tradition in the name of the Prophet (S.A.W) and using it to deprive her of her income and property. The "tradition" that he fabricated was, "We the Prophet s neither succeed anyone nor have any successors." The property and income which Fatema (S.A.) inherited from her father or was gifted by the Prophet (S.A.W) to his only daughter was a village by the name Fadak near Khaiber, khums (taxes) from Khaiber and some earnings from Madina. When the Prophet (S.A.W) received the revelation, "And give to your near relative, his right." [Tafseer Durrul Mansoor, Vol. 4, Page 177] he gave it to Fatema (S.A.) who managed the affairs herself and took it’s earnings the expenses of her household the rest she gave to her father who took for his needs and then distributed it to the poor. [Sonan-e-Abi Dawood]

On getting the news of confiscation, Fatema (S.A.) taking some ladies of Bani Hashim with her came to the mosque of the Prophet (S.A.W) where Abu Bakr was holding his court. A white curtain was drawn between them and Fatema (S.A.) putting her case before him said,

"Praise be to Allah and peace be to the soul of the Prophet (S.A.W). O slaves of Allah you are the people to whom the order of injunctions and interdictions of Islam are addressed and who are the recipients of the sanctions and prohibitions of the best creed in the world. You are the people whom the Lord and His messenger have entrusted the task to deliver the religion of Islam to the future generations and people. Therefore fear Allah and deem obedience to him essential so that you may not turn renegades after having accepted Islam and you may not die as infidels. Folks, I am Fatema, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah and I neither speak lies nor do I wrong anyone. The Prophet (S.A.W) having departed from this world and the thorn of heatheninm has started irritating you. Your old prejudices and hypocrisy are lifting their heads again and those people have started talking today who were silent due to awe of the sword. Some nameless persons who were best of all responded to the call of satan and are misguided by him. You became enraged against the virtuous and started taking to your homes what property belonged to others, though the Apostle had yet not been lowered into his grave. You made an excuse of fearful disturbances. You should know that the fire of hell is encircling all heathens.

What a plight, you had the governance of the followers of Mohammad (S.A.W)? You and protection of Islam and Muslims? See where the devil is leading you. You have left the Quran behind you. You only waited for the stability of your usurped caliphate, and then started kindling fires. You began to shed sparks of innovation and perfidy. You began blowing out the lights of Allah, stamping out the traditions of his messenger, wearing the mask of religion. You are destroying the faith and the creed and giving life to preIslamic
innovations. You are taking revenge against the Prophet
(S.A.W) from the members of his house. We are at the moment suffering like the person whose body has been pierced with a knife, or a spear has been broken in his belly. You people presume that we have no right to the Prophet's (S.A.W) heritage. Well do you want to have pre Islamic laws? Who can make better laws for the believers than Allah? Do you know my origin? Yes you know it. You know that I am the daughter of the Messenger of Allah. O Muslims will I be deprived of my succession to my father’s property?

O son of Abu Qahafa! (Abu Bakr) Is it written in the Book of Allah that you should inherit your fathers property, while I should not get my fathers property? (Abu Bakr began to cry [Tareekhe Yaqoobi]) Verily they fabricated allegations against Allah. Have you stopped following the Holy Quran? Allah says Solomon inherited from David (Quran, chapter 27, verse 16) and in the story of Prophet (S.A.W) Yahya’s son Zakariya the Lord says, "That he may be my heir as also of the sons of Jacob." (Quran chapter 8 verse 75 and chapter 33 verse 6) He has also commanded ,"Allah enjoins upon you with regard to your children that the males should get twice as much as females." (Quran, chapter 4 ,verse 11) and in another verse He says ,"And if he leaves behind wealth then he should make testament for the parents or relatives." (Quran chapter 2 verse 180) You think that I have no shares and I do not inherit my father’s heritage. Has Allah specified for you a revelation, excluding us and our fathers. Don’t I follow the religion of my father, or you have more knowledge, general and special of the Quran than my father and his cousin Ali? O Abu Bakr you can usurp my rights carelessly and without any conflict, but tomorrow on the Day of Judgement Allah will bring you to book, and Mohammad (S.A.W) will demand an explanation, then you will be a loser and your repentance will not help. `For everything there is a time fixed and shortly you will know'" (chapter 6 verse 67).

Then she addressed the Ansars, "You men of valour, has not the Messenger of Allah said that you should favour people through their children? How soon you have become susceptible to innovations and maneuverings. You keep on watching while we are oppressed. O people of the clans of Aws and Khazraj, will my inheritance be usurped? You have the arms, why do you submit to infidelity after having accepted the good faith? Why don’t you fight with the breakers of promise? Having decided aforetime to drive away the Prophet (S.A.W), these persons have now started killing you, are you afraid of them, `Allah alone deserves to be afraid of, if ye be true believers.'" (Quran, chapter 9, verse 13). When nobody replied Fatema (S.A.) said : "It appears that you have taken to restful life. You are reposing after removing the real successors. The creed which had gone down your throat you have vomited out. So even if you and all men in this world revert to heathenism for Allah is self sufficient and praiseworthy."

"I know that you will not help me, but since there was indignation and grief in my heart, I preferred to express my feelings rather than hide it. I have made my position explicit so that you may have no excuse to make in the matter on the Day of Judgement. You are free to take my share forcibly. Usurp it, you will be liable to eternal curses and the wrath of Great Allah who is severe in punishment. `Those who do wrong will come to know by what a (great) reverse they will be overturned!'

Quran, chapter 26, verse 227). Do as you please, as we do what we deem right and virtuous, and await the punishment as we await the reward."

When Fatema (S.A.) finished speaking Abu Bakr said, "You are the chief of all women and daughter of the last Prophet. Fortunate is he who earns your goodwill, and miserable is he who invokes your rage." Then he again recited, "We Apostles neither succeed anyone nor have any successors." And said that it is this tradition that is coming in his way
and having sought the unanimous opinions of the Muslims. (history has no record of any such meeting) "I have reserved the income from Fadak for purchasing arms and for covering the cost of military expedition and holy wars. Therefore I cannot give you this income. Of course, I have my own property and I authorise you to use it as you please. I cannot go against your father and give you Fadak." (Abu Bakr said all this knowing fully well that traditions cannot overrule revelations and Quran has clearly said, "And unto each we have appointed heirs of that which parents and near kindred leave.")

Commenting on the "tradition" quoted by Abu Bakr, Imam Raazi says, "It is very strange that the Prophet, instead of revealing his traditions to his uncle Abbas, Ali and Fatema, who were all very pious and authorities on religion, and being directly concerned with the inheritance, goes to inform a person who is far away from him and has nothing to do with the Prophet’s inheritance." [Tafseer-e-Kabeer of Fakhre Raazi, Vol. 3, page 230]. The falsehood of this tradition is also proved by the fact that he himself (Prophet (S.A.W)) received the inheritance of his father Abdulla which were camels, goats a slave and a sword [Madaarejunnabuva Vol. 2, page 689]. It is significant to note here that Abu Bakr used this "tradition" only to confiscate the belongings of Fatema (S.A.), while he did not touch upon the properties the Prophet (S.A.W) had left with Aisha (Abu Bakr’s daughter), Hafsa (Umar’s daughter) both wives of the Prophet (S.A.W) and other wives. On the contrary he sanctioned huge grants to them and his daughter receiving more than the rest. But Fatema (S.A.) the only daughter of the Prophet (S.A.W) was not given anything.

Fatema (S.A.) then put another claim for her belongings and said, "This property was already with me when the Prophet was alive."

But Abu Bakr did not believe her and asked her to bring witnesses to prove her claim. Fatema (S.A.) brought her two sons Hasan (A.S.) and Husain (A.S.), husband Ali (A.S.) and Umme Aiman one of the Prophet (S.A.W)’s wives. But Abu Bakr refused to accept their evidence and said, "The evidence of the sons in favour of the mother cannot be accepted as true, similarly Ali coming as a witness on behalf of his wife also cannot be accepted (about Ali (A.S.) he himself said, "Even looking at Ali is worship." Tareekhul Khulafa] now the evidence of the Prophet’s wife can be accepted as one woman’s witness is not accepted in Islam at least two women should give evidence in support of her claim."

These were the sentences uttered by Abu Bakr to Fatema (S.A.) who knew Fatema (S.A.) from the day of her birth. Fatema (S.A.) about whom Aisha his own daughter inspite of all her jealousies and hatred had confessed, "I did not find any person more truthful than Fatema except her father." [Abu Noaim Isfahani] and today her own father Abu Bakr was not prepared to believe about whom he had himself heard the Prophet (S.A.W) saying that, "Truth is with Ali and Ali is with the truth." It was the same Abu Bakr who though consulted Ali (A.S.) on every issue and often offered to abdicate the throne of Caliphate in favour of Ali (A.S.) saying, "Relieve me (of Caliphate) when (a man like) Abul Hasan (Ali (A.S.)) is amongst you", but was not prepared to believe him later. It was Abu Bakr today who was not prepared to believe Hasan (A.S.) and Husain (A.S.) the two sons of Ali (A.S.) and Fatema (S.A.) knowing fully well that the Prophet (S.A.W) had called them the leaders of the youth in heaven, and it was Abu Bakr who did not believe the words of Umme Aiman today whom the Prophet (S.A.W) respected as the most pious lady. The simple reason was that he wanted to finish the family of the Prophet (S.A.W) economically, and by fabricating a tradition in the name of Prophet (S.A.W) he had done it. There was no other narrator of this " tradition" nor was there ay verifier. It was just conceived and created by Abu Bakr to snatch the source of living of Prophet (S.A.W)’s family, consisting of Ali (A.S.) and Fatema (S.A.) only. The houses and properties of other wives which also belonged to the Prophet (S.A.W) were not seized on the contrary monthly grants were sanctioned for their benefit and maintenance, while the only daughter of the Prophet (S.A.W) was deprived of her own belongings.

Ali (A.S.), consoling her said, "Destruction is not for you, it is for your enemies. O Mustafa’s daughter, O the remnant of the Prophet. Swallow your anger, for I have not hesitated to act in the matter of religion nor have I done any wrong in my life. If you are worried of your maintenance, then that is secured for the giver is trustworthy. And the tidings which has been reserved for you is far more than what has been snatched from you. Therefore trust your Lord." Fatema (S.A.) replied, "He is enough for me" and became silent.

Umar realising that they had hurt the feelings of the Prophet (S.A.W)’s beloved daughter then asked Abu Bakr to go with him to Fatema (S.A.) because they have displeased her. Both came to her house, and asked her permission to enter. But Fatema (S.A.) refused. They then came to Ali (A.S.) and requested him to take them to Fatema (S.A.). Ali (A.S.) brought them home and as they entered the house Fatema (S.A.) turned her face away from them. They then greeted her but Fatema (S.A.) did not reply. Then Abu Bakr said, "O Habeeba I swear by the Prophet that the relations of the Prophet are dearer to me than my own relatives and that you are dearer to me than my own daughter Aisha. How proper it would have been that I should have died and not live in this world after him. Do you feel that inspite of knowing your status and honour I have deprived you of your rights and legacy derived from the Prophet. But I have heard your father say ,"We leave no heirs, and whatever we leave behind is sadaqa." Fatema (S.A.) replied, "If I remind you both of a tradition of that Prophet that you also know will you act accordingly?" They replied, "Yes". Fatema (S.A.) then said, "If I ask you in the name of Allah whether you did not hear the Prophet (S.A.W) declare `Fatema’s pleasure is my pleasure. Her displeasure is my displeasure. He who pleases her pleases me and he who displeases her displeases me.'" They confirmed that they had heard so. Then Fatema (S.A.) said, "I ask Allah and the angels to be witness to the fact that both of you have annoyed me and have not pleased me. When I meet the Prophet I shall complain about you. I curse you in every namaz I offer!" Hearing this Abu Bakr began to cry. [Kitabul Imamat Wa Siyasat vol 1 page 14] Fatema (S.A.) then asked Abu Bakr, "Who will be the inheritor of your property?" Abu Bakr replied, "My children." Fatema (S.A.) said, "Curse be on you that your inheritors can take your property and I cannot receive my father’s inheritance. The tradition that you are quoting is without any foundation and it is your own creation. If these would have been Prophet’s words we would have been the first to hear them." Abu Bakr left Fatema (S.A.)’s house weeping.

When people seeing him crying assembled near him, he complained "You people happily sleep with your wives and have put me in such difficulties. Withdraw your oath of allegiance, I don’t need it."

Fatema (S.A.) then attempted many times to get back her rights, but did not succeed and she never spoke to Abu Bakr all her life [Sahih Bukhari, vol 3, page 140]. It is also said that Abu Bakr did write a decree on Fadak in favour of Fatema (S.A.), but Umar tore the documents saying, "Don’t you see that the Arabs are bent upon fighting with you. How are going to bear the expenses of the battle you are going to fight." [Allama Sibte Ibne Jozi]. Thus Abu Bakr and Umar both deprived the family of the Prophet (S.A.W) with Fadak and other earnings.

After Umar’s death Usman gifted Fadak to Marwaan (Usman’s son-in-law) which remained in the position of the heirs and successors of Marwan until Umar Ibne Abdul Aziz was adorned with the Seat of Caliphate. He ordered his governor at Madina to hand over the possession to the descendants of Fatema (S.A.) i.e. Imam Mohammad Baquir and other descendants of Fatema (S.A.) had the possession of Fadak for some time, but again on Yazid Bin Abdul Malik Bin Marwan’s succession to the Caliphate it was taken away by a decree of the Caliph in favour of Bani Ummayad. It remained a property of the Ummayads until Abdul Abbas Saffah became the Caliph. He allotted Fadak to Hasan Bin Hasan Bin Hasan Bin Ali (A.S.) Bin Abi Talib, who used to distribute the income therefrom among the heirs and successors of Ali (A.S.). Then Bani Hasan revolted against the Abbasides during the reign of Mansoor, the second Abbaside Caliph and the ruler confiscated this property. Mehdi the son of Mansoor again returned it to the descendants of Ali (A.S.). But Moosa Hadi again seized it. This went on until Mamoon Al Rashid became the Caliph. The descendants of Ali (A.S.) then sent their representatives to the court of Mamoon demanding Fadak from him. Mamoon ordered Fadak to be restored to Bani Fatema (S.A.) and wrote to Kasam Bin Jafar his governor at Madina, "The best thing for the Caliph of the Prophet (Mamoon) is to follow the acts of the Prophet (S.A.W) and do what the Prophet had ordered and return the thing to the owner whom the Prophet had given and is a fact the Prophet (S.A.W) had given Fadak to his daughter Fatema and this is an open and undisputed fact. Assign Fadak to its lawful owners because the Messenger of Allah (Prophet) had granted it to his daughter Fatema. It is a well-known fact that Fatema claimed it. Therefore I feel Fadak should be restored to the living successors of Fatema." Thus on the basis of this order Fadak was granted to the descendants of Ali (A.S.) and finally when Jafar Mutawakkil assumed the Caliphate he confiscated that estate again.