Johfa is a place where roads from Egypt, Madina, Syria, Mecca and Iraq meet. Near this place is a pond known as Ghadeer-e-Khum. where Angel Gabriel descended and delivered the following message of Allah to the Prophet (S.A.W), "O Messenger deliver what has been sent down unto you from your Lord, and if you do not do this then you have not delivered His Message. And surely Allah will protect you from (the mischiefs of) men. Verily Allah will not guide an atheistic people." (Quran 3-67). The Prophet (S.A.W) immediately sent messengers to bring back those people who had gone ahead of him and waited for those who were coming behind.
Being the month of March it was terribly hot and the earth was burning like fire. Everybody in the caravan was anxious to know the emergency which had forced the Prophet (S.A.W) to take this immediate action as this was never a resting place for the travellers. Also the Prophet (S.A.W) ordered his men to remove the thorns and stones and clean the place under accasia trees and prepare a pulpit from the saddles of the camels.
When all the Muslims (124,000 according to the historian Ibne Aseer] had assembled, the Prophet (S.A.W) asked Bilal to recite the Azan and added the words "Hayya Ala Khairil Amal" (hasten towards the best of deeds) to it. When the Azan was over the Prophet (S.A.W) led the noon prayers. (A mosque known as Ghadeer-e-Khum Mosque has been constructed on that site).
After the noon prayers were over the Prophet (S.A.W) mounted the pulpit with Ali (A.S.) on his right. The Prophet (S.A.W) himself had tied a black turban on Ali (A.S.)s head with its end hanging on his shoulders, that day. Addressing the Muslims the Prophet (S.A.W) said, "I have been called back by the Lord and I have submitted to His Orders." Hearing these shocking words from their beloved many Muslims began to cry. The Prophet (S.A.W) continued, "Harken I shall be questioned for my dealings by Allah and you shall (in your turn) also be questioned what will you say?" The assembly roared with one voice, "We bear witness and we shall bear witness that you have given us the commandments of Allah as they should have been delivered and you have done everything and tried your best to guide and teach us. May Allah grant you the best reward for that." The Prophet (S.A.W) then said, "Do you not witness that there is no God but Allah, Mohammad (S.A.W) is his slave and messenger. The Heaven and Hell are realities. Death and life after death are also facts. There is no doubt that there will be a day of resurrection and judgements and Allah will raise them alive who are lying dead in their graces." Everyone roared, "Yes, undoubtedly we believe in these facts." The Prophet (S.A.W) then said, "I leave among you two valuable things one is Quran and the other is my progeny. Both of them will not part until they meet me at Hauz Kauser in heaven. Therefore be careful and guarded in your relations with Quran and my Progeny after me. Hearken Allah is my Lord and I am the Lord of the believers."
holding Ali (A.S.)s hand and raising it he said, "Ali is
also the Lord of those whose Lord I am. O Lord be a Master of one who
takes Ali (A.S.) as his master, be enemy of one who takes Ali as his enemy,
degrade him who tries to degrade Ali and help him who helps Ali and turn
righteousness in the direction of Ali in whichever direction he turns."
Some of the people from the crowd remarked, "Is it not enough
to profess the creed of evidence, say our prayers and give alms with strict
regularity? Why do you want to impose Abu Talibs son upon us? Is
it your personal order or the order of Allah?" The Prophet (S.A.W)
The Prophet (S.A.W) then got down from the pulpit and offered namaz. After finishing the namaz he asked Ali (A.S.) to wait in his tent. He then told the men to go and congratulate Ali (A.S.) for being chosen by Allah to be the heir to the Prophet (S.A.W). People in groups went inside the tent and congratulated Ali (A.S.). Talha and Zubair were the first to clasp the hand of Ali (A.S.). Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman followed them. Umar congratulating Ali (A.S.) said, "O Ali from today you are my master and the master of every Muslim men and women." [Riazun Nazra, page 169] When everybody had congratulated, the Prophet (S.A.W) asked his wives and other ladies to go and wish Ali (A.S.).
everybody had finished congratulating Ali (A.S.) and were preparing to
resume their journey the Prophet (S.A.W) asked them to inform those who
were not present to hear his declaration on this occasion. This was on
the 18th of Zilhajj 10th year after the migration of the
The significance of this declaration at such a time and such a place become all the more important when we find from the history that Adam appointed his son Sheesh as his successor. When Sheesh remained sick for eleven days and he felt that his death was certain he called his son Anoosh and appointed him as his successor and told him to shoulder his responsibilities. Anoosh appointed his son Qainan, Qainan appointed his son Mablail, Mablail appointed his son Yadpayard. Yard appointed his son Khunokh or Idris as he was his heir, Idris appointed Mutawashaq, his son as his heir, Mutawashak appointed his son Lunak, Lunak appointed his son Noah, Noah appointed his son Saam. Ibrahim appointed his two sons Ishaq and Ismail, Ismail appointed his son Qaidar and Ishaq appointed his son Yakub, Yakub appointed his son Yusuf, Yusuf appointed his son Yahuda, Ayub appointed Homil, Homil appointed his son Abadan, Moosa appointed his brother Haroon because he had no son and when Haroon died before him Moosa appointed Yoosha Bin Noon. Yoosha appointed Kalib, Kalib appointed his son Yoosa Kos. Illyas appointed Alyasae. Yasae appointed his son Zul Kifle. Shaya appointed Yashia. Dawood appointed his son Suleman, Issa appointed Shamoon.
Commenting on the declaration of Ghadeer, Imam Gazali in his book Sirrul Alemain writes, "Majority of the scholars and critics of Islam agree that the Prophet (S.A.W) did pronounce the tradition of Ghadeer-e-Khum on this occasion and all unanimously say that the Prophet (S.A.W) did declare that Ali (A.S.) is also the Lord whose Lord I am, and Umar did congratulate Ali (A.S.) saying from today O Ali! You are my Lord as well as the Lord of all the Muslims men and women. As a matter of fact his congratulation meant his acceptance of Ali as the Caliph of the Prophet (S.A.W) and the ruler of the Muslim world. But the greed for capturing the chair of power, the greed to be called the Caliph of the Prophet (S.A.W), flying the flag (of Islam) in the air, arranging huge cavalries and the lust for conquering cities overpowered them and made them selfish and turned them towards their old conditions (their pre Islamic days). In short they ignored the teachings of Islam and sold this valuable religion by taking a very small price. The tragedy is that they purchased with this money the most condemned thing (world). And when the Prophet (S.A.W) before his death asked them to get inkpot and pen so that he may solve the problem of Khilafat and remind them once again as to who deserves to be his heir and on this Umar remarked that leave this man alone he is speaking nonsense [Saheeh Bukhari]. In fact he had in his mind the Khilafat of Abu Bakr. Their interpretation of Quran and the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W) also did not help them. When they could not connect the two they took refuge behind the word consensus though even that was not true. Because Abbas (Prophet (S.A.W)s uncle) and all his children, Ali, Fatema and all their children never pledged their loyalty (to Abu Bakr) and even many people at Saqifa too opposed him then and how do they call it a majority."